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מענק מחקר ISF לדוד בוניס

אוגוסט 22, 2017

ברכות לפרופ' דוד בוניס על זכייתו במענק מחקר מטעם הקרן הלאומית למדע, למחקר 4 שנתי בנושא "הרומן בג'ודזמו/לאדינו בסלוניקי בין שתי מלחמות העולם: ניתוח סוציולינגויסטי-ספרותי".

להלן תקציר הפרויקט.

 

 

The Judezmo/Ladino Novel in Salonika During the Interwar Period: A Sociolinguistic-Literary Analysis

The society of the Ottoman Empire began to undergo westernization, modernization and secularization in the late eighteenth century, primarily as a result of the Ottoman regime’s desire to keep up with scientific and technological advances in Western Europe, improve its commercial and political relations with the West, and maintain its political integrity. No less than the other ethnic and religious groups of the empire, the major social changes resulting from this development affected its Jewish communities, mostly Sephardi, who were dispersed throughout the empire, but concentrated mostly in the large cities, particularly Istanbul and Salonika. A major catalyst to social change among the Jews of the empire was the establishment in its major cities of western-style schools, notably those of the Alliance Israelite Universelle (fd. Paris 1860) and Società Dante Alighieri (fd. 1889), which respectively disseminated a knowledge of and reverence for the French and Italian languages and Western European culture and civilization, while at the same time causing its Jewish pupils to distance themselves from the traditional Judezmo (or Ladino, or Judeo-Spanish) language, culture, social order and religion-dominated lifestyle. The estrangement of the younger generations from the tradition-bound orientation and lifestyle intensified in the early 20th century, especially from the time of the Balkan Wars (1912-1913) and World War I (1914-1918), as a result of major political changes, such as the rise of Constitutionalism in the Ottoman Empire (1909), the passing of Salonika into Greek hands in 1912, the proclamation of the Turkish Republic in 1923, and increasingly widespread interaction with Western Europeans. The Jewish communities of the region, who now ceased to be Ottoman subjects but rather members of new, highly nationalistic nation-states carved out of the Ottoman Empire, had to grapple with a plethora of new social and cultural problems, such as deciding upon their national-ethnic and religious identity, and how that decision would be reflected in their everyday lives; crystalizing their attitudes toward their traditional communal language and culture vis à vis the language and culture of their states of residence; taking a stand on societal issues increasingly affecting the communities, such as religious conversion, poverty, substance abuse, crime, and natural disasters such as the momentous Salonika Fire of 1917, which ravaged most of the city’s Jewish neighborhoods. In Salonika, all of these issues came to the fore in a series of locally-based novels, short stories and journalistic reportage in Judezmo written by members of the community, dealing with contemporary life in the community, and reflecting the contemporary varieties of the Judezmo language used by the younger members of the community. The main aims of the proposed research project are to transcribe from Hebrew to Roman letters a representative selection of the literature created in these genres in Salonika, and subject them to sociolinguistic and literary analysis. The romanizations will be made available to scholars and the general public through an open Internet site; the sociolinguistic and literary analysis will be published in the form of articles in scientific journals and as introductions to published versions of the romanizations.